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“XML DOM Interview Questions and Answers will guide us now that the XML DOM is a W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard. The DOM defines a standard for accessing documents like XML and HTML, The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure, and style of a document, so learn XML DOM by this XML DOM Interview Questions with Answers guide”



26 XML DOM Questions And Answers

3⟩ What does CVS stand for? Can you describe it in one sentence?

"CVS" is an acronym for the "Concurrent Versions System". CVS is a "Source Control" or "Revision Control" tool designed to keep track of source changes made by groups of developers working on the same files, allowing them to stay in sync with each other as each individual chooses.

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4⟩ How do I retrieve the comment from a specific version of a file?

This requires that you iterate through each version of the file looking for the label you want. Once the correct version of the file is identified you can retrieve the comment for that version. Below is some sample VB code demonstrating this: For Each objVSSVersion In objVSSObject.Versions If objVSSVersion.Action = "Beta 1" Then MsgBox(objVSSVersion.LabelComment) End If Next

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5⟩ In your experience, who are the most important allies of SQA within an organization?

SQA is a form of risk awareness, and is therefore potentially allied to any senior management with a risk management focus. Within some companies/industries (e.g. insurance), software risks are seen as having mainly financial consequences, and so the main ally might be the financial director. Within other companies/industries (e.g. retail), software risks are seen as having mainly customer service implications, and so the main allies may be in marketing roles. In one client, we had useful conversations with the Company Secretariat, because of the due diligence implications of some software risks. These conversations were triggered by Y2K issues, but ranged much more widely. In practice, SQA often fails to make these alliances, because it gets bogged down in obscure software technicalities and trivialities, which it is incapable of communicating effectively even to software engineers, let alone anybody else.

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6⟩ How do I remove a label?

This one is not intuitive. From within VSS Explorer, select the project, show history, check Labels Only, find the label of interest, click on Details, select the label text and delete it. Click Close, which will ask if you are sure you want to change the label. Click Yes and you’re done.

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8⟩ How do I apply a label to an older version of a file?

You must first pin the file at the older version (Show History, select the version of interest and click “Pin”.) Then apply the label to the parent project. The label will be applied to the “tip” revision of the unpinned files, but to the older version of pinned files. Then Unpin the file. The label ‘sticks’ even after the pin is removed.

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9⟩ How do I find all changes between two dates?

Here's how to get a list of everything that has changed since a particular date and time from the command line. In the command "a" or "p", refers to a.m. or p.m. respectively. And the ~ is used to indicate you want the history between the dates and times specified. Note that the later date and time must be specified first. -R makes it recursive. SS HISTORY $/mybranch -R -VD3/03/95;3:00p~3/03/95;9:00a

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10⟩ What is CVS for? What does it do for me?

CVS is used to keep track of collections of files in a shared directory called "The Repository". Each collection of files can be given a "module" name, which is used to "checkout" that collection. After checkout, files can be modified (using your favorite editor), "committed" back into the Repository and compared against earlier revisions. Collections of files can be "tagged" with a symbolic name for later retrieval. You can add new files, remove files you no longer want, ask for information about sets of files in three different ways, produce patch "diffs" from a base revision and merge the committed changes of other developers into your working files.

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12⟩ Where can I find the SSSCC API?

► Microsoft discourages the use of the SSSCC API. Instead they propose you use the OLE Automation interface.

► However, if you still wish to use the API you can request the MSSCCI spec by writing to msscci@microsoft.com. They will send you the NDA you need to sign to get the spec, and then send you the spec.

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15⟩ What is a Branch?

In general, a branch is any mechanism that allows one or more developers to modify a file without affecting anyone other than those working on the same branch. There are four kinds of "branch" CVS can manage: 1. The Vendor Branch. A single vendor branch is supported. The "import" command takes a sequence of releases from a source code vendor (called a "vendor" even if no money is involved), placing them on a special "Vendor" branch. The Vendor branch is considered part of the "Main line" of development, though it must be merged into locally modified files on the RCS Main branch before the "import" is complete. See Section 3H ("import"). 2. Your Working directory. A checked-out working directory, can be treated like a private branch. No one but you can touch your files. You have complete control over when you include work committed by others. However, you can't commit or tag intermediate versions of your work. 3. A Development branch. A group of developers can share changes among the group, without affecting the Main line of development, by creating a branch. Only those who have checked-out the branch see the changes committed to that branch. This kind of branch is usually temporary, collapsing (i.e. merge and forget) into the Main line when the project requiring the branch is completed. You can also create a private branch of this type, allowing an individual to commit (and tag) intermediate revisions without changing the Main line. It should be managed exactly like a Development Branch -- collapsed into the Main line (or its parent branch, if that is not the Main Branch) and forgotten when the work is done. 4. A Release branch. At release time, a branch should be created marking what was released. Later, small changes (sometimes called "patches") can be made to the release without including everything else on the Main line of development. You avoid forcing the customer to accept new, possibly untested, features added since the release. This is also the way to correct bugs found during testing in an environment where other developers have continued to commit to the Main line while you are testing and packaging the release. Although the internal format of this type of branch (branch tag and RCS branches) is the same as in a development branch, its purpose and the way it is managed are different. The major difference is that a Release branch is normally Permanent. Once you let a release out the door to customers, or to the next stage of whatever process you are using, you should retain forever the branch marking that release. Since the branch is permanent, you cannot incorporate the branch fixes into the Main line by "collapsing" (merging and forgetting) the release branch. For large changes to many files on the release branch, you will have to perform a branch merge using "update -j <rev> -j <rev>". (See 4C.7) The most common way to merge small changes back into Main line development is to make the change in both places simultaneously. This is faster than trying to perform a selective merge.

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17⟩ How does CVS differ from RCS?

CVS uses RCS to do much of its work and absolutely all the work of changing the underlying RCS files in the Repository. RCS comprises a set of programs designed to keep track of changes to individual files. Of course, it also allows you to refer to multiple files on the command line, but they are handled by iterating over individual files. There is no pretense of coordinated interaction among groups of files. CVS's main intent is to provide a set of grouping functions that allow you to treat a collection of RCS files as a single object. Of course, CVS also has to do a lot of iteration, but it tries its best to hide that it is doing so. In addition, CVS has some truly group-oriented facets, such as the modules file and the CVS administrative files that refer to a whole directory or module. One group aspect that can be a bit confusing is that a CVS branch is not the same as an RCS branch. To support a CVS branch, CVS uses "tags" (what RCS calls "symbols") and some local state, in addition to RCS branches. Other features offered by CVS that are not supported directly by RCS are 1. Automatic determination of the state of a file, (e.g. modified, up-to-date with the Repository, already tagged with the same string, etc.) which helps in limiting the amount of displayed text you have to wade through to figure out what changed and what to do next. 2. A copy-modify-merge scheme that avoids locking the files and allows simultaneous development on a single file. 3. Serialization of commits. CVS requires you to merge all changes committed (via "update") since you checked out your working copy of the file. Although it is still possible to commit a file filled with old data, it is less likely than when using raw RCS.

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18⟩ What is CVS *not* useful for?

CVS is not a build system.Though the structure of your Repository and modules file interact with your build system (e.g. a tree of Makefiles),they are essentially independent.CVS does not dictate how you build anything. It merely stores files for retrieval in a tree structure you devise.CVS does not dictate how to use disk space in the checked out working directories. If you require your Makefiles or build procedures to know the relative positions of everything else,you wind up requiring the entire Repository to be checked out. That's simply bad planning.If you modularize your work, and construct a build system that will share files (via links, mounts, VPATH in Makefiles,etc.), you can arrange your disk usage however you like.But you have to remember that *any* such system is a lot of work to construct and maintain. CVS does not address the issues involved. You must use your brain and a ollection of other tools to provide a build scheme to match your plans.Of course, you should use CVS to maintain the tools created to support such a build system (scripts, Makefiles, etc).CVS is not a substitute for management.You and your project leaders are expected to plan what you are doing. Everyone involved must be aware of schedules, merge points, branch names, release dates and the range of procedures needed to build products. (If you produce it and someone else uses it, it is a product.) CVS can't cover for a failure to manage your project.CVS is an instrument for making sources dance to your tune.But you are the piper and the composer. No instrument plays itself or writes its own music.CVS is not a substitute for developer communication.When faced with conflicts within a single file, most developers manage to resolve them without too much effort.But a more general definition of "conflict" includes problems too difficult to solve without communication between developers.CVS cannot determine when simultaneous changes within a single file, or across a whole collection of files, will logically conflict with one another.Its concept of a "conflict" is purely textual, arising when two changes to the same base file are near enough to spook the merge command into dropping conflict markers into the merged file.CVS is not capable of figuring out distributed conflicts in program logic.For example, if you change the arguments to function X defined in file A and, at the same time, edit file B, adding new calls to function X using the old arguments.You are outside the realm of CVS's competence.Acquire the habit of reading specs and talking to your peers.CVS is not a configuration management system.CVS is a source control system. The phrase "configuration management" is a marketing term, not an industry-recognized set of functions.A true "configuration management system" would contain elements of the following: * Source control. * Dependency tracking. * Build systems (i.e. What to build and how to find things during a build. What is shared? What is local?) * Bug tracking. * Automated Testing procedures. * Release Engineering documentation and procedures. * Tape Construction. * Customer Installation. * A way for users to run different versions of the same software on the same host at the same time.

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19⟩ How does CVS work?

CVS saves its version-control information in RCS files stored in a directory hierarchy, called the Repository, which is separate from the user's working directory.Files in the Repository are stored in a format dictated by the RCS commands CVS uses to do much of its real work. RCS files are standard byte-stream files with an internal format described by keywords stored in the files themselves.To begin work, you execute a "checkout" command, handing it a module name or directory path (relative to the $CVSROOT variable)you want to work on. CVS copies the latest revision of each file in the specified module or directory out of the Repository and into a directory tree created in your current directory. You may specify a particular branch to work on by symbolic name if you don't want to work on the default (main or trunk) branch.You may then modify files in the new directory tree, build them into output files and test the results.When you want to make your changes available to other developers, you "commit" them back into the Repository.Other developers can check out the same files at the same time.To merge the committed work of others into your working files you use the "update" command. When your merged files build and test correctly, you may commit the merged result. This method is referred to as "copy-modify-merge", which does not require locks on the source files.At any time, usually at some milestone, you can "tag" the committed files, producing a symbolic name that can be handed to a future "checkout" command. A special form of "tag" produces a branch in development, as usually happens at "release" time. When you no longer plan to modify or refer to your local copy of the files, they can be removed.

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20⟩ What is CVS useful for?

CVS is intended to handle source control for files in three major situations: 1. Multiple developers working on the same files.The major advantage of using CVS over the simpler tools like RCS or SCCS is that it allows multiple developers to work on the same sources at the same time.The shared Repository provides a rendezvous for committed sources that allows developers a fair amount of flexibility in how often to publish (via the "commit" command) changes or include work committed by others (via the "update" command). 2. Tracking a stream of releases from a source vendor.If you are making changes to sources distributed by someone else, the CVS feature, called the Vendor Branch, allows you to combine local modifications with repeated vendor releases.I have found this most useful when dealing with sources from three major classes of source vendor: a. Large companies who send you tapes full of the latest release (e.g. Unix OS vendors, database companies). b. Public Domain software which *always* requires work. c. Pseudo-Public sources which may require work. (e.g. GNU programs, X, CVS itself, etc.) 3. Branching development.Aside from the "Vendor Branch", there are three kinds of "branches in development" that CVS can support: a. Your working directory can be treated as a private branch. b. A Development branch can be shared by one or more developers. c. At release time, a branch is usually created for bug fixes. (See 1D.9 and Section 4C for more info on branches.) CVS's branch support is a bit primitive, but it was designed to allow you to create branches, work on them for while and merge them back into the main line of development.You should also be able to merge work performed on the main branch into the branch you are working on. Arbitrary sharing and merging between branches is not currently supported.

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