Artificial Intelligence General

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26 Artificial Intelligence General Questions And Answers

1⟩ Explain the branches of AI?

There are many, some are 'problems' and some are 'techniques'.

Automatic Programming - The task of describing what a program should do and having the AI system 'write' the program.

Bayesian Networks - A technique of structuring and inferencing with probabilistic information. (Part of the "machine learning" problem).

Constraint Statisfaction - solving NP-complete problems, using a variety of techniques.

Knowledge Engineering/Representation - turning what we know about particular domain into a form in which a computer can understand it.

Machine Learning - Programs that learn from experience or data.

Natural Language Processing(NLP) - Processing and (perhaps) understanding human ("natural") language. Also known as computational linguistics.

Neural Networks(NN) - The study of programs that function in a manner similar to how animal brains do.

Planning - given a set of actions, a goal state, and a present state, decide which actions must be taken so that the present state is turned into the goal state

Robotics - The intersection of AI and robotics, this field tries to get (usually mobile) robots to act intelligently.

Speech Recogntion - Conversion of speech into text.

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2⟩ Can you please explain the difference between strong AI and weak AI?

Strong AI makes the bold claim that computers can be made to think on a level (at least) equal to humans. Weak AI simply states that some "thinking-like" features can be added to computers to make them more useful tools... and this has already started to happen (witness expert systems, drive-by-wire cars and speech recognition software). What does 'think' and 'thinking-like' mean? That's a matter of much debate.

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3⟩ I am a programmer interested in AI. I am writing a game that needs AI. Where do I start?

It depends what the game does. If it's a two-player board game,look into the "Mini-max" search algorithm for games (see [4-1]). In most commercial games, the AI is is a combination of high-level scripts and low-level efficiently-coded, real-time, rule-based systems. Often, commercial games tend to use finite state machines for computer players. Recently, discrete Markov models have been used to simulate unpredictible human players (the buzzword compliant name being "fuzzy" finite state machines).

A recent popular game, "Black and White", used machine learning techniques for the non-human controlled characters. Basic reinforcement learning, perceptrons and decision trees were all parts of the learning system. Is this the begining of academic AI in video games?

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4⟩ What is Artificial Intelligence General?

Artificial intelligence ("AI") can mean many things to many people. Much confusion arises that the word 'intelligence' is ill-defined. The phrase is so broad that people have found it useful to divide AI into two classes: strong AI and weak AI.

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5⟩ Suppose 2 batsmen each on 94. 7 runs to win in 3 balls. both make unbeaten 100. how?

Case 1: A batsman can be given out

1st batsman hits a six....gets caught on d nxt ball...crease

is changed....next batsman hits a six again...

Case 2: No batsman is out

1st batsman hits d ball n hits d keeper'ds helmet kept

behind...he also takes a single...6 runs are added to his

total making it 100...on d next ball ,2nd batsman hits a

six,making his score 100....as simpl as dat....

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6⟩ What is Game Playing AI?

This covers a number of game playing techniques, notably checkers and backgammon because so much good research has been done on these problems and because so many different techniques have been tried.

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8⟩ Explain Natural Key?

When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the primary key, then it is called the natural key.

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13⟩ Explain Compound Key?

If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct, then combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as creating a compound key.

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14⟩ Explain Artificial Key?

If no obvious key, either stand alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to simply create a key, by assigning a unique number to each record or occurrence. Then this is known as developing an artificial key.

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15⟩ Suppose I have gmail account, I want to delete all the mails in my inbox having the same name(for eg., Orkut). I have thousands of mails like that. so, How can I delete all the mails having single name. Is there any option provided in Gmail?

Yes, its very easy ...just do one thing ..in the top of the

Inbox page there is a search box just search whatever you

want to delete then click .. after few sec all the mail with

concerned name get displayed .. just select them and delete

them .. as you delete your spam or other mails..

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20⟩ Can you please explain the difference between classical AI and statistical AI?

Statistical AI, arising from machine learning, tends to be more concerned with "inductive" thought: given a set of patterns, induce the trend. Classical AI, on the other hand, is more concerned with "deductive" thought: given a set of constraints, deduce a conclusion. Another difference, as mentioned in the previous question, is that C++ tends to be a favourite language for statistical AI while LISP dominates in classical AI.

A system can't be truely intelligent without displaying properties of both inductive and deductive thought. This lends many to beleive that in the end, there will be some kind of synthesis of statistical and classical AI.

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