A derivative is a security with a price that is dependent upon or derived from one or more underlying assets. The derivative itself is a contract between two or more parties based upon the asset or assets. Its value is determined by fluctuations in the underlying asset. The most common underlying assets include stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates and market indexes.
Credit (Risk) Analyst
“Credit (Risk) Analyst Frequently Asked Questions in various Credit Analyst job interviews by interviewer. The set of questions are here to ensures that you offer a perfect answer posed to you. So get preparation for your new job interview”
74 Credit (Risk) Analyst Questions And Answers
Interest rate is the amount charged, expressed as a percentage of principal, by a lender to a borrower for the use of assets. Interest rates are typically noted on an annual basis, known as the annual percentage rate (APR). The assets borrowed could include, cash, consumer goods, large assets, such as a vehicle or building. Interest is essentially a rental, or leasing charge to the borrower, for the asset's use. In the case of a large asset, like a vehicle or building, the interest rate is sometimes known as the "lease rate". When the borrower is a low-risk party, they will usually be charged a low interest rate; if the borrower is considered high risk, the interest rate that they are charged will be higher.
Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising and, consequently, the purchasing power of currency is falling. Central banks attempt to limit inflation, and avoid deflation, in order to keep the economy running smoothly.
A municipal bond is a debt security issued by a state, municipality or county to finance its capital expenditures, including the construction of highways, bridges or schools. Municipal bonds are exempt from federal taxes and from most state and local taxes, making them especially attractive to people in high income tax brackets.
The prime rate is the interest rate that commercial banks charge their most credit-worthy customers. Generally, a bank's best customers consist of large corporations. The prime interest rate, or prime lending rate, is largely determined by the federal funds rate, which is the overnight rate that banks use to lend to one another; the prime rate is also important for individual borrowers, as the prime rate directly affects the lending rates available for a mortgage, small business loan or personal loan.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. Though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis, it can be calculated on a quarterly basis as well. GDP includes all private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports minus imports that occur within a defined territory. Put simply, GDP is a broad measurement of a nation’s overall economic activity.
Macroeconomics is a branch of the economics field that studies how the aggregate economy behaves. In macroeconomics, a variety of economy-wide phenomena is thoroughly examined such as, inflation, price levels, rate of growth, national income, gross domestic product and changes in unemployment.
It focuses on trends in the economy and how the economy moves as a whole.
You should definitely have a good, solid answer ready for this question, since the debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio is a key, if not the primary, financial ratio considered in evaluating a company's ability to handle its debt financing obligations. The D/E ratio indicates a company’s total debt in relation to its total equity, and it reveals what percentage of a company's financing is being provided by debt and what percentage by equity. Your answer should show you understand the ratio and know that, generally speaking, ratios lower than 1.0 indicate a more financially sound firm, while ratios higher than 1.0 indicate an increasing level of credit risk.
Beyond that, it should be noted that average D/E ratios vary significantly between sectors and industries. A more solid credit risk analysis includes an examination of the current state of the industry and the company's position within the industry, as well as consideration of other key financial ratios such as the interest coverage ratio or current ratio.
Real income refers to the income of an individual or group after taking into consideration the effects of inflation on purchasing power. For example, if you receive a 2% salary increase over the previous year and inflation for the year is 1%, then your real income only increases by 1%. Conversely, if you receive a 2% raise in salary and inflation is at 3%, then your real income shrinks by 1%.
This question is more likely to be thrown at someone with previous experience in the field who is applying for a senior credit risk analyst position, but it still might show up in an interview for an entry-level credit risk analyst position with a bank. A good answer demonstrates you understand the concept, and a better answer likely includes an example. A credit default swap (CDS) is a frequently used method of mitigating risk in fixed-income, debt security instruments such as bonds, and it is one of the most common financial derivatives. A CDS is essentially a type of investment insurance that allows the buyer to mitigate his investment risk by shifting risk to the seller of a CDS in exchange for a fee. The seller of the CDS stands in the position of guaranteeing the debt security in which the buyer has invested.
Other questions likely to be encountered in a credit risk analyst position interview are general questions about your problem-solving abilities, your ability to work as a part of a team and your understanding of basic macroeconomics concepts such as fiscal policies and the prime rate.
A mortgage is a debt instrument, secured by the collateral of specified real estate property, that the borrower is obliged to pay back with a predetermined set of payments. Mortgages are used by individuals and businesses to make large real estate purchases without paying the entire value of the purchase up front. Over a period of many years, the borrower repays the loan, plus interest, until he/she eventually owns the property free and clear. Mortgages are also known as "liens against property" or "claims on property." If the borrower stops paying the mortgage, the bank can foreclose.
The interest rate at which a depository institution lends funds maintained at the Federal Reserve to another depository institution overnight. The federal funds rate is generally only applicable to the most creditworthy institutions when they borrow and lend overnight funds to each other. The federal funds rate is one of the most influential interest rates in the U.S. economy, since it affects monetary and financial conditions, which in turn have a bearing on key aspects of the broad economy including employment, growth and inflation. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which is the Federal Reserve’s primary monetary policymaking body, telegraphs its desired target for the federal funds rate through open market operations. Also known as the “fed funds rate".
Financial instruments are assets that can be traded. They can also be seen as packages of capital that may be traded. Most types of financial instruments provide an efficient flow and transfer of capital all throughout the world's investors. These assets can be cash, a contractual right to deliver or receive cash or another type of financial instrument, or evidence of one's ownership of an entity.
Personal income refers to all of the income collectively received by all of the individuals or households in a country. Personal income includes compensation from a number of sources including salaries, wages and bonuses received from employment or self-employment; dividends and distributions received from investments; rental receipts from real estate investments and profit-sharing from businesses.
Debt/Equity Ratio is a debt ratio used to measure a company's financial leverage, calculated by dividing a company’s total liabilities by its stockholders' equity. The D/E ratio indicates how much debt a company is using to finance its assets relative to the amount of value represented in shareholders’ equity.
The formula for calculating D/E ratios can be represented in the following way:
Debt - Equity Ratio = Total Liabilities / Shareholders' Equity
The result may often be expressed as a number or as a percentage.
This form of D/E may often be referred to as risk or gearing.
Purchasing power is the value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy. Purchasing power is important because, all else being equal, inflation decreases the amount of goods or services you would be able to purchase.
In investment terms, purchasing power is the dollar amount of credit available to a customer to buy additional securities against the existing marginable securities in the brokerage account. (For further insights, see: Buying Power)
Financial analysis is part of the job. Analysts must understand things like financial and cash-flow statements, market share, management accounts, income growth, etc. They are required to generate financial ratios to understand a customer’s financial situation.
The analyst’s job is to analyze customers, as well as the market. The analyst must know how safe the playing habits of the client are. The analyst studies customer records and meets customers regarding various issues.
The monetary, material or assessed worth of an asset, good or service. In accounting, value describes what something is worth in terms of something else. For example, the value of a loaf of bread might be $3; the $3 for the loaf of bread would represent the generally accepted worth of the bread.
In economics, value describes the merit of the benefits of ownership. The benefits of ownership include utility, the pleasure or satisfaction gained by consumption of a particular good or service; and power, the ability of a good or service to be exchanged for other goods, services or money.
Government spending policies that influence macroeconomic conditions. Through fiscal policy, regulators attempt to improve unemployment rates, control inflation, stabilize business cycles and influence interest rates in an effort to control the economy. Fiscal policy is largely based on the ideas of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946), who believed governments could change economic performance by adjusting tax rates and government spending.