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12 Biological Sciences Questions And Answers

4⟩ Explain apoptosis?

The programmed death of a cell. This type of cell death

occurs by fragmentation of membranes that are then


Cellular suicide or programmed cell death. HIV may induce

apoptosis in both infected and uninfected immune system

cells. Normally when CD4 cells mature in the thymus gland,

a small proportion of these cells are unable to distinguish

self from nonself. Because these cells would otherwise

attack the body's own tissues, they receive a biochemical

signal from other cells that results in apoptosis


10⟩ What is the difference between food infection and food?

Food infection- when the disease causing pathogenic organism are trasmitted via food it is called food infection.

Food poisioning- the toxin produced by cetain microorganism in food which leads to some undesirable change is called food poisoning.


12⟩ Why does separation not occurs in stacking gel in gel electrophoresis and why does separation done in separating gel?

Stacking gel has a much larger pore size,and is merely used for stacking (arranging one over other) the samples so that they can be resolved in the separating gel easily. Since the separating gel has an optimal pore size so the samples separate by molecular sieving effect of the resolving gel which is absent in case of Stacking gel.